Thursday, 20 December 2012

Affecting on Reading Comprehension Achievement (DESCRIPTIVE )



HAPTER I

A. Background
English is the dominate foreign language and function as an international language. Most of the scientific books available through out the world are written in English as Halim (1987: 1) points out that in the development of a nation at present, we cannot deny the fact that the command of English plays an important role, because according to UNESCO, at least 62 % of the scientific books are written in English.
In this section, therefore, the study and the mastery of English should be given priority. In fact, English in the only foreign language taught as a compulsory subject in secondary schools.
It can be argued that, in Indonesia, the main objective of English teaching is the reading ability as Das (1985) in Mursalim (1988 2) states, in Indonesia, the main objective of TEFL is reading ability for the purpose of further study and of science and technology also in 1994 curriculum reading ability is the main target will be taught both academic purpose and as means of international communication.

As medium of communication and tool of learning reading serves an Indispensable function in the society. Wayne (1979) states that reading is central to most subject and important in nearly all of them since reading is an essential tool. It is a means to the achievement of many ends.
A person must read well if he or she is to broad his or her experience, develop new concepts and solve challenging problems. As for the English language skills that are studied by Indonesian students, it has an important position beside listening, speaking and writing skills, we realize how important reading.
For students who want to develop and extend their reading knowledge, reading comprehension skill is fundamental skill in obtaining progress. The students can extend their reading knowledge by reading and comprehending books, the students are hoped to be able not only in pronouncing the words but also goal in grasping. The ideas prepared in order to be able to draw inference from reading passage. Zints (1975) in Syahrir (1994: 2) points out that the primary in reading instruction is to teach the reader to understand to respond what he reads. He also said that the fundamental goal in seeking to produce mature readers is to enable them to comprehend what ever printed materials will serve their purpose, no matter how difficult those materials may be. This statement is emphasized by Adams and Collins (1977: 1) who state that reading is not the ability to decode words but the ability to extract the meaning of both explicit and implicit fro the written.
Basically, there are two kinds of reading comprehension when readers are able to use the writer’s words to answer the questions, it’s their factual comprehension sometimes, and the information is not directly stated. It needs specific skill. They have to infer the meaning using their own reasoning and logic. This skill requires greater emphasis upon thoughtful reading or thinking along with beyond what is given in the printed material. This type of understanding is referred to as inferential comprehension. To comprehend written material, a reader must use a variety of skills such as skills include: he reader must be able to draw conclusion, identify the main idea and recognize details from selection.
To be able to know the word meaning and draw inference from the test is really needed if the students want to make their reading active. It means that they aren’t only to receive as much as possible information or message but also to be able to interchange ideas with the writer’s.
J. Estill A. (1988: 161) States as follows:
If the reader is getting only the literal meaning, he is reading receptively. He is trying to receive only what the author has to say. While higher level of comprehension involves reading beyond or between the lines, he brings the knowledge and applies reading to life situations.

The statement above identifies that inference ability is an important skill in testing the reader comprehension. Although, many efforts have been done, the reality shows that many students can read but not many can understand what they have read. Many students are not competent to comprehend English text well, eventhough, they have learning English for many years. As a result, they find serious handicaps in comprehending a passage. It is supported by Flesch (1955) in Syahrir (1994:4) that many students can read the words in a passage perfectly but are unable to answer questions that call for making inferences or for identifying the main idea. They can say the words, but unable to gain??????????????????????     ??????????????????????????????????????????


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