“Teaching How to Write Descriptive Text Using Descriptive Video”
Writer : Nurul Ulfah NPM : 07211210293 Semester VI B FACULTY OF TEACHERS TRAINING AND EDUCATION ENGLISH EDUCATION PROGRAM UNIVERSITY OF IBN KHALDUN BOGOR 2009-2010
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INTRODUCTION Writing is one of skill which very important in English competence. Besides reading speaking and listening, writing skill is rather difficult mastered. The others skill is compounded in writing because the student who has good writing skill, he or she is good in others skill. Actually, writing cannot be
opened done. It has the complex rules according with the kind of writing. Writing as a process to get product is influenced by some elements such as vocabularies, grammar, organization, spelling, and punctuation. In the writing English subject, students have to know and understand those elements. Students have been learned kinds of text in writing skill. They should produce written simple functional text in the recount text, narrative text, news items, procedures, and descriptive text. They can use right diction, grammar, punctuation, spelling, and organization. Based on the title of this paper, writer describes the writing of descriptive text using descriptive video. Descriptive text is difficult enough to learn by the students. Descriptive is a type of text function to describe particular person, place, or thing. The students can use simple present and adjective clause in writing descriptive text. The methods that are usually used to teach writing in the class are guided writing and individual writing. In guided writing method the students’ activity is to write out grammar exercise. This method is not affective to improve student’s writing ability. Whereas in writing the descriptive text using video is more effective and efficient because methods between guided writing and individual writing are compounded into a practice method. The use of descriptive video in teaching descriptive writing can help student to write easily and interesting. In addition, it can develop to assist student’s exercise in writing individually. Although descriptive video technology was developed to assist individuals with visual impairments, it can be used to help all students build their vocabulary, comprehension, writing ability and the generic structure of the text.
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1. Definition of Descriptive Text
Descriptive text is a text which say what a person or a thing is like. Its purpose or function is to describe and reveal a particular person, place, or thing. The content of text of course has a rule and formation called generic structure or text organization.. The generic structure of descriptive text are : Identification; identifying the phenomenon to be described. Description; describing the phenomenon in parts, qualities, or/and characteristics
Descriptive text also has the gramatical fitures and the significant characteristisc as gramatically. Significant grammatical structure as follows: focus on specific participants use of attributive and identifying processes frequent use of epithets and classifiers in nominal groups use of simple present tense
The purpose from the text above that description is used in all forms of writing to create a vivid impression of a person, place, object or event e.g. to: Describe a special place and explain why it is special. Describe the most important person in your live. Describe the animal’s habit in your report.
Descriptive writing or text is usually also used to help writer develop an aspect of their work, e.g. to create a particular mood, atmosphere or describe a place so that the reader can create vivid pictures of characters, places, objects etc. To complete our intention to, here are the characteristics based on descriptive writing or text, below;
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As a feature, description is a style of writing which can be useful for other variety of purposes as: To engage a reader’s attention To create characters To set a mood or create an atmosphere To being writing to life
Description is one of the genres taught in the eleventh year. It takes 8.77% of all texts found in the textbook. All description texts found in the textbook have good generic structures. They have completed all of their obligatory elements. To describe something is to mention certain details of it so that whoever reads or hears the words can imagine it in their own minds. Everybody can imagine and, as with any ability, with practice you get better. Descriptive language crops up everywhere – it is in fact a very vague term. Descriptions crop up in all kinds of writing,
2. The influences of implementing technology in learning and teaching process Technology is one of most effective media in teaching and learning process. Along of developed word, technology has been growing up each era. It gives the influence into educational process, from methods, instrumens and learning media. How technological media has improved students' learning, helps teachers to think constructively and critically, and builds towards a practical methodology for the design, development and implementation of educational technologies. To explore students' learning, teacher has to use the suitable educational technology bases on subject individual teaching methods and media, including non-interactive media (lectures, print, audio, etc.), hypermedia (CD-ROM, etc.), and interactive media (simulations, modelling programs etc.); and discusses the design methodology, designing learning activities, setting up the learning context and maintaining quality.
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Basicly, technology has to be flexibly and creatively. It is able to size up a task, recognize how technology might help them to fulfill the task, and then use the technology to do so. Helping students learn to apply technology in learning is easier because the use of technology as daily media in teaching learning process. Students are learning to use technology as part of the information problem-solving process to perform better in classroom curriculum. When a teacher reflects on integrating technology skills into teaching and learning, it is not necessary to change the fundamentals of quality instruction or the information problem-solving perspective that is at the heart of the big skills approach. The implementation of technology through the big works in the following ways: ■Develops students’ problem-solving, complex thinking and information management abilities. ■ Enables students to become comfortable with technology and understand that the technologies are valuable tools to help them perform their work. ■ Focuses students’ attention on using technologies as tools to extend knowledge and to individualize learning. ■ develops an active participatory learning process in which students become self-directed learners. ■ Facilitates integrating technology across all grades and into all disciplines. ■ Assists teachers to change their roles from presenters of information to “learning coaches” who offer tools and advice. ■ Helps teachers introduce technology and have students use technologies even if the teachers aren’t experts themselves. Implementing technology within the big process is easy, direct, and powerful. It also encourages classroom teachers, library media specialists, and technology teachers to collaboratively design instruction that can intentionally create challenging and exciting learning experiences. Such opportunities expand the scope of new technology use by all students.
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3. Descriptive Video as implementation of technology in education
One of teaching method which helps students improve their writing abilities and their attention to details while experiencing a new technology called Descriptive Video. Also known as described programming, Descriptive Video refers to programming with an additional audio track that narrates a film’s visual elements. Video is one of technology using as media for teaching and learning. Video uses visual and audiovisual. The video can be stored on videotapes, CD-Rom, DVD, or computer drives, and it can be used in either preservice or inservice teacher education/professional development programs. Kind of descriptive video in this writing is educated video such video of animal’s description, nature, etc.This additional audio track contains narration or description to explain the plot of film and the knowledge of the educated massage. Contributors explain the nature of the video they use in their teacher education programs or courses and talk about how they use it, focusing in particular on principles for: (1) making the videos (decisions about how and what to capture on video, the degree to which the teaching should be scripted, whether it should be shown uninterrupted or segmented and edited, and so on), and (2) principles for using the video in the teacher education program (why and how it is used at what points in the program, how viewings are structured and scaffolded by the teacher
4. Teaching writing of descriptive text using descriptive Video
Teachers can use Descriptive Video technology to differentiate instruction. Described programming gives students models of highly descriptive writing. Some students are able to use these models and improve their writing with relative independence. Other students require greater scaffolding. Actually, the use of media technologies such video offer new literacies and that these literacies depend to some extent on using media technology to communicate effectively. In this paper, students will balance theory with practice, and the successful student will leave with technical, working knowledge of some New Media technology. She
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will also be familiar with what it means to think critically with and through these technologies.
Student’s Descriptive Writing Process
Student’s writing process after watching video ; Describe from memory Take the topic or object that students are going to write base on the video that being watched and picture it in the mind. Imagine that students are close enough to touch and feel the object in the video. Look at it closely and identify its story.. Write every detail about the object that can be remembered. Sketch Student tries to draw a pictures of the object which attends in video. Visualize it in student’s mind and sketch from memory, or place studentsselvis comfortably near the object.. This sketch is just for helping students fully explore the details of the object. Sketching the object also gives a creative outlet for when student are struggling with putting pen to paper. Reviewing and pointing Students tries to remember the plot in descriptive video that has been watched and make the outlines by arranging the description of the object in that video. Compliting Student tries to give the more detail description of object bases on the outline formation.
Teaching descriptive writing process
Steps teaching writing using video: Always preview and evaluate the video even if you produced it yourself. It will help establish relevance in terms of the points or visuals you wish to emphasise during the viewing. Check the room’s lighting, seating, picture and sound quality to be sure that everyone can see and hear the video when it is played.
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Prepare student’s writing tools like book and pencil to darw the key point of video content. Prepare students by briefly reviewing previous related studies, or teach prerequisite skills in order to equalise students’ background. Brief them on the video’s contents and list the key points to direct attention to specific aspects of the video relatinng with what will be wrote. For recapitulation or further discussion, re-play the video to consolidate information which was previously presented rapidly. This contributes to the overall learning experience as students will have the opportunity to see what they have missed in the first showing. Since watching a video is mostly a passive activity, you should introduce activities to motivate student participation, especially before and after the playback Conduct post-viewing discussions or quizzes to emphasise key issues or points. Redirect attention to new content or concepts, and help students to process complex information. Assign writing lists and project work and so on. teacher may identifys other activities that would help to reinforce student learning
Steps teaching writing of descriptive text (After showing a video)
Calkins’s Four Phases of the Writing Process. According to Calkins (1994), there are four distinct phases of the writing process: prewriting, writing, editing, and revising. Phase 1: Prewriting
Teacher gives some questions to the student’s brainstorm a list of object; here writer use an example about animal. Examples of the questions: - What is the animal’s name? - What does the animal look like? - What kind of animal is it? - What is the animal’s habitat? - Is the animal nocturnal or diurnal? - What does the animal eat? Is it herbivore or Carnivore?
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- Tell an interesting fact about the animal. - What enemies does the animal have? From these questions directly show the formulation of descriptive text. This way is to give the direction how to arrange the descriptive text after watching a video to the students. Phase 2: Writing
In this phase, teacher takes an instruction to the students for making outline or mapping of the answering of these questions relate to the content of video. Example: [What is the animal’s name?] ------- The name of this animal is [name of animal]. It is a [mammal, bird, or reptile]. It lives in the forests of [continent or Country]. It can be made like a graphic or mapping before arranging into paragraphs. Other examples takes from Joseph’s completed graphic organizer:
Here is Joseph’s draft report: Hedgehog The name of this animal is hedgehog. It is mammal. It lives in North America, Asia, and Europe. It lives in desert. Hedgehog eats insects, snails, snakes, bird eggs and grass. It is omnivore. It is nocturnal because it eats food at night. Something unusual about my animal is that spines come out when hedgehog is scared. It rolls into a ball. It has enemies like owl, fox, mongoose and wolf.
Hedgehog eats snails, insects and plants? It is omnivore.
Hedgehog is mammal.
Hedgehog is nocturnal. It hunts for food at night.
Hedgehog rolls in ball when hedgehog is scared.
Hedgehog live in the forest of Europe, Asia, and
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Phase 3: Editing
Many teachers may ask their students to self-edit because they believe that students should be given the opportunity to self-correct their work. However, students will not be able to self-edit, as they will have trouble finding most of their mistakes and may be frustrated in the attempt. When students are fluent enough to discuss their written ideas and thoughts, the teacher should provide instruction on how to peer edit using think-aloud and modeling. For example, the teacher takes her text as model to edit step by steps, while from generic structures and the use of tense etc. Phase 4: Revising
It is important to tie the type of revision that is possible for each learner. For example, students in the early stages may not yet have developed the skills for describing possessives and tenses; they may only just be learning how to write nouns in the plural form and match them to the correct verb forms. When reviewing students’ papers, teachers tell specific details about what they are supposed to do during the revision process. Simply stating, “Add more information here” is too vague; a more appropriate comment would be “Mention something special that hedgehogs can do here.” If students are a part of the editing process, the revisions will be more meaningful to them. Giving a homework writing
Teacher gives instruction to the student for rewrite descriptive text using descriptive video which is given to each student in a form of CD. Presenting a Finished Document
Teachers should encourage students to share their writing with classmates and family. Students can display work in the classroom and hallway or “publish” classroom books.
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ANALYSIS 1. The efectiveness of using descriptive video in teaching descriptive text;
The efectiveness of using descriptive video for;
Student in learning process
Teacher in teaching process
Student need the focus time and use the full efective times to analyse text by watching video
Teacher has the efective time in teaching when use the video need the enough time to be efective teaching. It must by appointing times in course plan.
Student will more understand about the description of their writing and they can easily appointing the plot of the video becomes generic structure of descriptive text
Teacher will more understand about teaching technique how to match the content of video with steps of teaching instruction.
Student can operate technology as the guided class-learning and self- learning
Teacher can operate technology as the guided learning and teaching
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2. Grafic of Teaching Learrning Process in Descriptive Writing using Descriptive Video
Preparing for playing a video
Giving an intruction to note some question
Controling a watching process and guides it.
Giving the model outlines of list scene
Giving intruction to rewrite the content or scene of video
Editing the writing togethers
Giving task to rewrite the others video
Publishing student’s writing
preparing for watching
Watching and pointing the main point of the scenes
Making outlines and explenation of the scenes
Arranging the outlines become a plot based on the video
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Editing it by looking at teacher’s intruction
Review it at home
3. Compression between Manual Writing and Automatic Writing. Manual writing is done without instrument or technology as a media to get a source for making a text, while automatic writing is writing text by using technology as media and instrument for getting some descriptions about object. Steps to make manual writing are:
1. Find and Explore a Topic
Before the writer can write an effective descriptive paragraph, the writer needs to do two things: find a good topic; study the topic carefully (a strategy that we call probing).
For guidelines and examples, visit Discovery Strategy: Probing its Topic.
2. Draft a Descriptive Paragraph
Once the writer has settled on a topic for its descriptive paragraph and collected some details, the writer ready to assemble those details in a rough draft that begins with a topic sentence. the writer will find a common model for organizing a description at Draft a Descriptive Paragraph.
3. Revise a Descriptive Paragraph
Now the writer will revise your descriptive paragraph, concentrating on its organization. That is, the writer will check to see that its sentences follow a clear and logical order, each detail related to the one that came before and leading to the one that follows. These two exercises will give you practice in revising effectively: Practice in Supporting a Topic Sentence with Specific Details Practice in Organizing a Descriptive Paragraph
4. Revise, Edit, and Proofread
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It's now time to invite someone else (a classmate, for example, teacher) to read the writer’s descriptive paragraph and suggest ways to improve it. Taking the reader's comments into consideration, revise the paragraph one last time, using as a guide this Revision Checklist for a Descriptive Paragraph. For examples of the finished product, see Model Descriptive Paragraphs Example of descriptive text:
The Blond Guitar
By Jeremy Burden My most valuable possession is an old, slightly warped blond guitar--the first instrument I taught myself how to play. It's nothing fancy, just a Madeira folk guitar, all scuffed and scratched and finger-printed. At the top is a bramble of copper-wound strings, each one hooked through the eye of a silver tuning key. The strings are stretched down a long, slim neck, its frets tarnished, the wood worn by years of fingers pressing chords and picking notes. The body of the Madeira is shaped like an enormous yellow pear, one that was slightly damaged in shipping. The blond wood has been chipped and gouged to gray, particularly where the pick guard fell off years ago. No, it's not a beautiful instrument, but it still lets me make music, and for that I will always treasure it. If the writer analyzes the steps of manual writing, it’s use self mind as much and exploring the individual study. This method is fare if it used for high student or Student University, but the automatic writing which use technology as media is special for senior and elementary student. Both of these methods of writing are good for each target.
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CONCLUSION Writing is part of English skill. Writing as a process to get product is influenced by some elements such as vocabularies, grammar, organization, spelling, and punctuation. However descriptive text tends to specify the described object Descriptive text commonly tries to reveal the image of certain person, place, animal, or thing,Text Descriptive text has structure as below: Identification; identifying the phenomenon to be described. And description; describing the phenomenon in parts, qualities, or/and characteristics. The language feature of descriptive text using attributive and identifying process. Using adjective and classifiers in nominal group. Using simple present tense Video is media or instrument to guide student in making descriptive text. This technology is effective if applaying to elementary and junior student. The use of video guides in making an topic and outline of the description text then student easy to arrange these outlines become a text. There are two process of methods which have been explained in this paper, such follows: teaching descriptive writing using descriptive video and learning how to write descriptive text using descriptive video. Both of these process are more efective then manual writing which doesn’t use technology in teaching and learning.
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